Glossary of Terms

List of terms utilized in the NNOMY website and their definitions.

A

The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) is a multiple choice test, administered by the United States Military Entrance Processing Command, used to determine qualification for enlistment in the United States Armed Forces. It is often offered to American high school students when they are in the 10th, 11th and 12th grade, though anyone eligible for enlistment may take it.

C

see Civil Air Patrol

The Civil Air Patrol (CAP) is a congressionally chartered, federally supported non-profit corporation that serves as the official civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force (USAF). CAP is a volunteer organization. It performs three congressionally assigned key missions: emergency services, which includes search and rescue (by air and ground) and disaster relief operations; aerospace education for youth and the general public; and cadet programs for teenage youth. In addition, CAP has recently been tasked with homeland security and courier service missions. Membership in the organization consists of cadets ranging from 12 to just under 21 years of age, and senior members 18 years of age and up

source: Wikipedia

The right to refuse to perform military service on the basis that...the obligation to use lethal force may seriously conflict with the freedom of conscience and the right to manifest one's religion or belief. A growing number of States have in their laws exempted from compulsory military service citizens who genuinely hold religious or other beliefs that forbid the performance of military service and replaced it with alternative national service.

source: United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner

Conscription/Draft

Compulsory enrollment of persons especially for military service

source Merriam-Webster

Counter-recruitment is an attempt to prevent military recruiters from enlisting civilians into the military. There are several methods commonly utilized in a counter-recruitment campaign, ranging from the political speech to direct action. Such a campaign can also target entities connected to the military, such as intelligence agencies, or private corporations, especially those with defense contracts.

source: Wikipedia

D

The Delayed Entry Program (DEP), also called the Delayed Enlistment Program (or called the Future Soldiers Program in the Army), is a program whereby individuals going into active duty in the United States Armed Forces enlist first in the DEP before they ship out to Basic Training, or "boot camp." While those who join the DEP have signed an enlistment agreement to report on a certain date for training, they are not yet members of the United States Armed Forces until they enlist in the regular component of their selected branches on their ship dates.

source Wikipedia

see Delayed Entry Program

E

An ordinance which seeks to make it so that,"for each military recruitment session done in the district’s schools, peace groups are allowed equal time and access to the students to offer alternatives to enlistment."1 The No Child Left Behind Act granted military recruiters the ability to obtain to student information, as well as "equal access to high school students that college recruiters enjoy."2 Counter-recruitment groups have campaigned for the right to have equal presence in school campuses, career day presentations and tables, and other speaking opportunities and activities as military recruiters,3 arguing that "students were entitled to as much information as possible about the military before making a decision regarding a career in the military"4

Sources

1 "Five Ways to Counter Military Recruitment in your School District" - American Friends Service Committee

2, 3, 4  "Equal Access Struggle: Counter-Military Recruitment on High School Campuses, 44 J. Marshall L. Rev. 459" - Phillip Ruben Nava

ESSA

see Every Student Succeeds

Every Student Succeeds

A US law passed in December 2015 that governs the United States K–12 public education policy. The law replaced its predecessor, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), and modified but did not eliminate provisions relating to the periodic standardized tests given to students. Like the No Child Left Behind Act, ESSA is a reauthorization of the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which established the federal government's expanded role in public education.

source Wikipedia

 

G

Refers to any Department of Veterans Affairs education benefit earned by members of Active Duty, Selected Reserve and National Guard Armed Forces and their families. The GI Bill has several programs and each is administrated differently -- depending on a person's eligibility and duty status. The list of currently active major GI Bill programs:

  • Post-9/11 GI Bill
  • Active Duty Montgomery GI Bill
  • Reserve and Guard Montgomery GI Bill
  • Vocational Rehabilitation and Education Program

source "GI Bill Overview" - Military.com

J

see Joint Advertising Marketing Research & Studies 

program run by the United States Department of Defense to maintain sufficient levels of voluntary service in the United States Armed Forces. This objective is facilitated by the collection of information about U.S. persons of enlistment age, surveys, and other market research in a central database made available to military recruiters.

source Wikipedia

see Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps

A federal program sponsored by the United States Armed Forces in high schools and also in some middle schools across the United States and United States military bases across the world. According to Title 10, Section 2031 of the United States Code, the purpose of Junior is "to instill in students in [United States] secondary educational institutions the values of citizenship, service to the United States, and personal responsibility and a sense of accomplishment. Additional objectives are established by the service departments of the Department of Defense. Under 542.4 of Title 32 (National Defense) of the Code of Federal Regulations, the Department of the Army has declared those objectives for each cadet to be:

  • Developing citizenship and patriotism
  • Developing self-reliance and responsiveness to all authority.
  • Improving the ability to communicate well both orally and in writing.
  • Developing an appreciation of the importance of physical fitness.
  • Increasing a respect for the role of the U.S. Armed Forces in support of national objectives.
  • Developing a knowledge of team building skills and basic military skills.
  • Taking 3–4 years of the course grants cadets the ability to rank higher if they pursue a military career.

source: Wikipedia

M

 the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability to use it aggressively to expend or promote national interests.

source Wikipedia

A private, nonprofit organization concerned with "strengthening national security by ensuring kids stay in school, stay fit and stay out of trouble."1 It's membership is comprised of "more than 700 retired admirals, generals, and other top military leaders"2, and it focuses on achieving policy change for healthy school foods, physical education and activities in schools and communities, expanding access to early education, and helping states adopt high academic standards.3 Targeting Pre-kindergarten and four year-old children, these changes are primarily to improve the readiness of children for future military positions. As retired Army Gen. William Wallace, a member, states "The U.S Army today faces an imminent and menacing threat to our national security... The lack of fully qualified young people to serve in the military. Faced with these declining numbers, we have two choices: Lower the military admission standards or raise the health and education standards for our young people."4

sources

1, 2 Mission: Readiness - "Main Page"

3 Mission: Readiness - "Our Impact"

4 "Retired officers assert that military readiness begins in pre-K" - Chuck N. Baker

N

The stated mission of the program is "to intervene in and reclaim the lives of at-risk youth to produce program graduates with the values, skills, education and self-discipline necessary to succeed as adults." The program accepts 16- to 18-year-old male and female high school dropouts who are drug-free and not in trouble with the law. The program lasts for 17½ months. The first 5½ months are part of the quasi-military Residential Phase. The last 12 months are part of the Post-Residential Phase. Most participants will earn their GED or a high school diploma by the end of their Residential Phase. 

source Wikipedia

see No Child Left Behind

see National Guard Youth Challenge Program

An U.S. Act of Congress that reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act; it included Title I provisions applying to disadvantaged students. It supported standards-based education reform based on the premise that setting high standards and establishing measurable goals could improve individual outcomes in education. The Act required states to develop assessments in basic skills. To receive federal school funding, states had to give these assessments to all students at select grade levels. The act did not assert a national achievement standard – each state developed its own standards. NCLB expanded the federal role in public education through further emphasis on annual testing, annual academic progress, report cards, and teacher qualifications, as well as significant changes in funding.

source Wikipedia

O

The Federal public law 107-110, section 9528 of the ESEA, ” No Child Left Behind Act” requires the school district to notify families of their right to Opt Out from the release student names, addresses, and phone numbers to military recruiters. Families have the right to request that the district not release their child’s information to military recruiters.

source Truth in Recruitment

P

Police Explorers

Also known as Law Enforcement Exploring, it is a career-oriented program that gives young adults the opportunity to explore a career in law enforcement by working with local law enforcement agencies. Founded on July 12, 1963, it is one of the Exploring programs from Learning for Life, a non-Scouting subsidiary of the Boy Scouts of America. The program is generally available to qualified young adults who graduated 8th grade and are ages 14 through 21.

source Wikipedia

Poverty Draft

The belief that the enlisted ranks of the military were made up of young people with limited economic opportunities. 

source "The Poverty Draft" - Jorge Mariscal

R

Abuse perpetrated by military recruiters in high schools. Examples of recruiter abuse include:

  • Making misleading or false statements;
  • Repeated contact after a request to refrain from contact;
  • Physical coercion;
  • Sexual solicitation;
  • Encouraging recruits to lie or falsify information;
  • Offering drugs or alcohol;
  • Attempting to intimidate or scare recruits or their parents;
  • And refusal to accurately document recruits’ medical or legal situations.

source "Recruiter Abuse" - GI Rights Hotline

Reserve Officers' Training Corps

A group of college-based officer training programs for training commissioned officers of the United States Armed Forces. ROTC officers serve in all branches of the U.S. armed forces. ROTC students attend college like other students, but also receive basic military training and officer training for their chosen branch of service through the ROTC unit at or nearby the college. The students participate in regular drills during the school year, and extended training activities during the summer. 

source Wikipedia

ROTC

see Reserve Officers' Training Corps

S

A nonresidential program for students (grades K-12, though the main focus is grades 4-8) that provides them with real-world applications of math and science through experiential learning, simulations, and experiments in aviation and space-related fields. The STARBASE acronym originally stood for "Science and Technology Academies Reinforcing Basic Aviation and Space Exploration". At this time, STARBASE is simply the title of the program, not an acronym.

Source Wikipedia

see Science, Technology Engineering, and Mathematics

T

Troops to Teachers

A Department of Defense program "designed to assist eligible military personnel in their pursuit of teaching as a second career in public schools".1 The Education Secretary at the time of this program's conception, Michael Gove, on the program: “Every child can benefit from the values of a military ethos. Self-discipline and teamwork are at the heart of what makes our armed forces are the best in the world and are exactly what our young people need to succeed."2

sources

1 "Troops to Teachers" - U.S. Department of Defense Education Activity

2 "'Troops to Teachers' shot down by critics as only 28 veterans qualify" - Richard Garner

Activism directed at educating prospective applicants of what it means to join the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marines. Recruiters often gloss over the dangers of enlisting (at a California High School, a survey directed at students found that "over 86% of respondents said military service was never portrayed to them as dangerous"1), and military service is often likened to a regular job, ignoring that "'...a career in military is a really different choice. You can't give 30 days' notice; you can get thrown in jail if you don’t show up to work. You lose a lot of your civil rights,' and you could be asked to kill."2 The goal of Truth in Recruitment is not to demonize the military but to inform prospective recruits of the other options at their disposal. 

Sources

1 "The Poverty Draft? Exploring the Role of Socioeconomic Status in U.S. Military Recruitment of Hispanic Students" - Adam McGlynn, Jessica Lavariega Monforti

"The Realities of a Military Career" - Richie Demaria

 

Y

A youth program in the United States and Japan open to all youth between the ages of 8 to 18 or completion of high school (whichever is later, not to exceed 20 years of age).

  • To promote the mental, moral, and physical development in its members the principles of honesty, fairness, courage, respect, loyalty, dependability, attention to duty, and fidelity to the United States and its institutions
  • To stimulate an interest in, and respect for academic achievement and the history and traditions of the United States and the U.S. Marine Corps
  • Their three core values are leadership, discipline, and teamwork
  • To promote the physical fitness through the conduct of physical activities, including athletic events and close order drill
  • To advocate a healthy drug-free lifestyle by continual drug prevention education programs, including avoiding gateway drugs
  • Can receive a higher initial pay grade upon enlistment in any Military Branch.

Young Marines learn survival techniques, physical training, hiking, swimming, rock climbing, rappelling, scuba diving, etc. depending upon the geographic location of the unit, and undergo leadership training... All Young Marines learn military drill based on the U.S. Marine Corps and practice those skills in community parades; some units may have their own drill team.

source Wikipedia

Sowing Seeds: The Militarisation of Youth and How to Counter It

Sowing SeedsThrough articles, images, survey data and interviews, Sowing Seeds: The Militarisation of Youth and How to Counter It documents the seeds of war that are planted in the minds of young people in many different countries. However, it also explores the seeds of resistance to this militarisation that are being sown resiliently and creatively by numerous people. We hope the book will help to disseminate these latter seeds. It is not just a book for peace and antimilitarist activists: it is a book for parents and grandparents, teachers, youth workers, and young people themselves.

Author(s)/editor(s):
Owen Everett
Publisher:
War Resisters' International
Year published:
2013
ISBN:
978-0-903517-27-0

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The National Network Opposing the Militarization of Youth (NNOMY) is supported by individual contributions and a grant by the Craigslist Charitable Fund - 2016 Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.